20/02/2024

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The Victorian Era and the British Empire

The Victorian Era and the British Empire

What Occurred For the duration of the Victorian era?

The Victorian period was the period of Queen Victoria’s reign, from 20 June, 1837 until eventually her demise on 22 January 1901.

The era followed the Georgian period of time (1714 to 1837, named right after the Hanoverian Kings George I, George II, George III and George IV) and was characterised by a class-primarily based culture which bundled the upper, center and lower class.

It was a period of time of old-fashioned ideals, renowned for its corsets, bonnets, top rated hats, bustles and petticoats and the entrepreneurial spirit of the self-created male.

Charles Dickens grew to become renowned as the best novelist of the Victorian era and Florence Nightingale (1820-1910), a British nurse, identified as “The Lady With the Lamp,” whose encounters all through the Crimean War set the foundation of fashionable nursing.

Coronation of Queen Victoria

Queen Victoria’s father died when she was just 8 months previous, and her three uncles also died, putting her in line as heir to the throne when she was 18-years-previous.

Her coronation took put on Thursday, 28 June 1838, just more than a calendar year immediately after she succeeded to the throne with Lord Melbourne, her 1st Key Minister, who skilled her in the art of politics.

Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, her to start with cousin, turned the consort of Queen Victoria from their marriage on 10 February 1840 until finally his dying in 1861.

Their small children married into royal and noble families, earning Victoria the nickname, “the grandmother of Europe” and spreading haemophilia in European royalty.

Prince Albert died from typhoid fever on 14 December 1861 at Windsor Castle with Queen Victoria and 5 of his children at his bedside.

The Belle Époque (1871 – 1914)

The Belle Époque (La Belle Époque, “Attractive Epoch”) among the stop of the Franco-Prussian War in 1871 to the outbreak of Environment War I in 1914 saw French artistic arts prosper, with many masterpieces of literature, music, theater, and visible artwork thrived.

In Britain and the rest of Europe, it was characterized by optimism, regional peace, economic prosperity, colonial growth, and technological, scientific, and cultural innovations.

Industrial Revolution

The remarkable forces of alter unleashed by the Industrial Revolution built the British Empire the initial global industrial electrical power, manufacturing substantially of the world’s coal, iron, metal and textiles during the Victorian era.

The 1st Industrial Revolution (1760 – 1840) in Excellent Britain noticed the demise of rural lifestyle as towns rapidly expanded and the manufacturing unit system grew to become set up, centered on textile manufacturing.

3 of the most influential inventions of this interval were the coke fueled furnace, steam motor, and spinning jenny which amplified creation abilities.

The 2nd Industrial Revolution (1850 – 1914) focused on the production of cost-productive metal, railroad growth, improvements in electricity, improved communication, petroleum and the auto.

Alexander Graham Bell (March 3, 1847 – August 2, 1922) a Scottish-born inventor, scientist, and engineer invented and patented the phone in 1876 though Samuel Finley Breese Morse (April 27, 1791 – April 2, 1872), an American inventor and painter, invented the electric powered telegraph (1832-35) and then codeveloped the Morse Code (1838).

Boy or girl Labor During the Victorian Era.

Boy or girl labor during the Industrial Revolution grew to become notorious for the problems underneath which kids have been used, depriving them of their childhood, their skill to go to college, and was mentally, physically, socially and morally harmful.

Children manufactured up much more than 25 percent of the British workforce in mines, factories, and workshops.

Several commenced work as youthful as four or five decades previous functioning extended several hours in harmful functioning problems.

In coal mines, young children would crawl by means of tunnels far too slim and reduced for grown ups and there had been youthful boys doing the job as chimney sweeps in wealthy homes to take out soot.

The well known creator, Charles Dickens, labored at the age of 12 in a blacking manufacturing facility, with his loved ones in debtor’s jail.

Lord Shaftesbury

Anthony Ashley Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury (28 April 1801 – 1 October 1885) was a British politician, philanthropist and social reformer who grew to become recognized as the “Lousy Man’s Earl” owing to his advocacy for the improved remedy of the functioning courses.

He was also president of the Ragged University Union, which promoted the training for society’s most destitute small children.

Lord Shaftesbury believed instruction was a way of liberating kids from poverty.

Manufacturing unit Acts he supported ensured improved problems for small children and women of all ages which provided:

*the maximum performing day to be 12 hrs.

*kids below the age of 9 to be banned from get the job done.

*young children age 9 to 13 to be limited to a 48-hour performing week, with attendance at school aspect-time.

British Empire

At just 4ft-11in tall, Victoria was a towering symbol of the British Empire.

Her reign paved the way for a present day and affluent Good Britain.

From the mid-18th-century, the Royal Navy was the world’s most highly effective and performed a important aspect in creating the British Empire.

Victories in excess of Napoleonic France amplified Britain’s influence abroad when Lord Nelson’s fleet defeated the French and Spanish at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805 and the Duke of Wellington defeated Napoleon Bonaparte at Waterloo in Belgium in 1815.

Queen Victoria grew to become the Empress of India on the suggestions of her seventh prime minister Benjamin Disraeli.

She authorized of his imperialist insurance policies which led to the Scramble for Africa in the 1880s and 1890s with the other Excellent European Powers.

Britain grew to become the most potent nation in the globe with one-fourth of the global populace owing allegiance to the queen.

William Ewart Gladstone (29 December 1809 – 19 May well 1898) was a Liberal politician who served for 12 many years as Primary Minister of Good Britain distribute above four phrases commencing in 1868 and ending in 1894.

His political doctrine identified as Gladstonian liberalism was to cut down privilege and to open founded institutions to all these as the universities and the army.

Political Parties Throughout the Victorian Period

The two primary political parties in the course of the Victorian era were being the Whigs/Liberals and the Conservatives.

The Whigs had been a key British political group of the late 17th via early 19th-centuries who wished confined royal authority and greater parliamentary electrical power.

The Labour Celebration was founded in 1900, having grown out of the trade union movement and socialist get-togethers of the 19th century who overtook the Liberal Bash, to turn out to be the main opposition to the Conservative Bash in the early 1920s.

Popular statesmen for the duration of the Victorian era had been Lord Melbourne, Sir Robert Peel, Lord Derby, Lord Palmerston, Benjamin Disraeli, William Gladstone, and Lord Salisbury.

Lord Melbourne (a Whig) who was the British key minister from July 16 to November 14, 1834, and from April 18, 1835, to August 30, 1841 was Queen Victoria’s near pal and main political adviser during the early several years of her reign (from June 20, 1837).

Crimean War

The Crimean War (1853-6) was a important European military conflict of the 19th-century which observed an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia versus Tsarist Russia.

The rapid cause included disputes about Orthodox holy places in Jerusalem and the rights of Orthodox, Christian minorities in the Holy Land, which ended up beneath occupation by the Ottoman Empire.

The French Emperor Napoleon III (a Catholic) refused.

Getting received promises of assist from France and Britain, the Turkish, Ottoman Empire declared war on Russia in Oct 1853.

Cost of the Mild Brigade

The Cost of the Light-weight Brigade which took place through the Fight of Balaklava, on October 25, 1854 of the Crimean War had been the British gentle cavalry pressure with rapid horses and troopers armed with lances and sabers.

Via misinterpreted orders, the Gentle Brigade of 670 horsemen began a headlong demand towards the seriously defended Russian troops.

The legend was created famous by Alfred, Lord Tennyson in his 1855 poem to honor their bravery and sacrifice: “Honor the charge they created! Honor the Light-weight Brigade, Noble six hundred!”

Florence Nightingale

Florence Nightingale, (1820 – 1910) was a British nurse and the founder of modern-day nursing.

She turned famous for her nursing get the job done during the Crimean War (1854 – 56) and an icon of the Victorian period as “The Girl with the Lamp” who produced her nightly rounds of wounded and dying troopers.